Risk and Return for investment in Agribusiness

Risk and Return for investment in Agribusiness
Risk and Return for investment in Agribusiness

Definition of risk for investment

Risk and Return for investment in Agribusiness are mandatory to be considered. One of the most dynamic, contentious, and volatile fields of finance is the risk analysis of investments. In general, business choices are made under conditions of ambiguity rather than under conditions that approach certainty. The extreme end of the same continuum is basically both risk and uncertainty. The word “risk” is used to connote the concept of a double chance of loss or gain. Some people are likely to highlight investment stuff to loss possibilities, but it is a cynical and depressing negative approach. But some people are likely to emphasize positive possibilities of benefit when investing.

The risk associated with a project or investment can be described in formal terms as the instability that is likely to occur in future returns or investments. Therefore, the risk is correlated with return variability, i.e., the degree to which the return on investment varies unpredictably.


Investment means that investors delay current consumption in order to add to their capital so that they can buy more in the future. The return on investment, therefore, concerns the shift in wealth that results from the investment. Such a shift in wealth can be triggered either by cash inflows in the form of interest or dividends or by a shift in the asset price. The time during which funds (wealth) are deployed by an investor is called the holding time and the return for that period is called the return for the holding period (HPR).

Historic vs. expected Returns

Security returns consist of profits in the form of dividends or interest plus capital adjustments. Complete returns consist of all changes in rates and revenue earned over a particular interval. Future returns are the relevant ones made today for decision making. Significant use of the expected return is to compare the value over time and across asset groups. The risk premium differential, which is the difference between the expected return on assets such as securities, shares, or real estate and the expected return on a risk-free asset such as a Treasury bill, is the basis of certain asset allocation decisions. Comparing historical (ex post) and anticipated (ex ante) returns is an important way of measuring returns. The history of an investment’s results over a given time span produces historical returns. On the other hand, estimated returns are the best estimates of what returns could be for some future period of time. Historical returns are known with certainty, while projected returns are fraught with ambiguity, i.e. they are in essence probabilistic.

Risk Classification

The uncertainty of the return on an investment is a short-term risk. Investment returns can differ from the expectations of investors. Therefore, risk can be characterized as the probability that the real return from an investment will be lower than the expected return. It can be narrowly divided into two groups, such as systemic risk and unsystematic risk, depending on the risk elements. The origins of systemic risk are those risk elements that are external to the firm that can not be regulated and impact large quantities of securities. On the other hand, elements of unsystematic risk are referred to as controllable, internal factors somewhat unique to sectors and/or businesses. Systematic risk is a risk associated with a macro, omnipresent cause, such as the national economy. On the other hand, the unsystematic or special risk is referred to as the micro risks associated with factors specific to a business. Investment managers can do nothing about structural risk, but they can do a lot about the risk that is unsystematic or special.

Systematic Risk

The systematic risk applies to the portion of overall investment return uncertainty triggered by factors influencing the prices of all of the portfolio’s securities. The causes of systemic risk are economic, political, and sociological shifts. They have the effect of causing the prices of almost all individual common stocks, shares, and other securities on the market to shift in the same direction. An economic or financial system is affected by systemic risk. Often referred to as widespread risk, systematic risk can be classified by the following means:

Market risk:

The price of the common stock changes regularly during the market place buying and selling process of the investor or speculator. Even if earnings remain unchanged and some common stocks have a seasonal trend, the price of a stock can fluctuate daily and cyclically. Investors may lose money due to changes in stock market prices. Market risk is referred to as the uncertainty in return on most popular stocks due to major sweeping shifts in investor expectations. In general, expectations of lower corporate profits will cause the larger body of common stocks to drop in price. Investment prices vary because investors are hesitant about various types of investment in their choice or simply because they sometimes have the capital to invest and sometimes don’t. In the presence of market risk, the vast vagaries of the stock market, the volatility, and stability of the real estate markets, and the irregular mortgage markets and second-large bond issues are all illustrative.


Interest-rate-risk can be characterized as the fluctuation of the fixed income securities market price due to changes in interest rate levels. Fixed-income securities imply notes and bonds, mortgage loans, and preferred stocks that pay investors annually a definite sum of interest or dividends. Interest is the price charged for the use of capital and fluctuates with the demand and supply factors working in the market, like other rates. In the first place, the degree of fluctuation in the market prices of fixed income securities arising from interest-rate risk depends on the sum of the interest rate adjustment. The market price of stocks varies inversely with every change in the market rate of return on a bond. The second factor influencing the degree of fluctuation is the duration of the maturity period. Any undertaking or property price is subject to the risk that its earning power or usefulness could decline due to competition, change in demand, uncontrollable costs, misconduct of management, government action, or similar circumstances.

Risk of purchasing power:

The risk of purchasing power is the uncertainty of the quantity to be paid. It refers to the effect on investment of inflation or deflation. Rising prices of goods and services are generally related to what is known as inflation. On the other hand, deflation is characterized as falling prices of goods and services. In recent years, purchasing power risk or inflation risk has earned substantial attention. He suffers from the danger of buying power when the investor keeps his surplus funds in the safety deposit box.

Often referred to as purchasing power risk is the risk of loss of income or principal due to decreased purchasing power of assets. The purchasing power risk is very high for some investors. Individuals or institutions who use their income to purchase goods and services are greatly concerned about any changes in their income’s purchasing power. Inflation-fearing investors typically invest partly in common stocks and real estate in the expectation of an increase in value. In their calculation of potential return, Justification investors should provide a buying power risk allowance in the form of an expected annual percentage shift in prices. So, Risk and Return for investment in Agribusiness can not be avoided. 

Default Risk:

Default risk is another source of systemic risk. This kind of risk exists because companies can inevitably go bankrupt. Undiversifiable or uncontrollable default risk as it is routinely connected to the market cycle that affects most of all investments, even though some default risk can be diversified in an independent investment portfolio.

Exchange rate risk:

the probability that the rate of return will be influenced by adjustments in exchange rates since investments have been made in foreign markets where the commitment to pay dividends, interest, or principal is not denominated in domestic currency risk or exchange risk. Exchange rate risk is the uncertainty resulting from the decision of an investment in a region other than the region of the investor. When investors buy and sell assets across the world, the possibility of incurring this risk is rising, when compared to only assets within their own countries.

Political risk:

Also known as country risk, because of the probability of significant political change in the country where an investment is located, political risk is uncertain. Political risk is called the possibility that returns will be impacted by the policies and stability of nations. Typical political threats are the danger of debt repudiation or inability to satisfy the debt service, the expropriation of properties, disparities in taxation, limits on the repatriation of funds, and the ban on the conversion of foreign currency into domestic currency.

Liquidity risk:

The probability of not being able to sell an asset at a fair market value is liquidity risk. If an investor acquires an asset, he expects the investment to mature or to sell it to someone else. In any case, the investor assumes that the protection will be converted into cash and that the proceeds will be used for current consumption or other investments. The more complex this conversion is to make, the higher the chance of liquidity.

Real estate risk:

these types of structural risks are special and are usually not found in most investments and not in real estate. The basic risk inherited from investments in real estate is given below:

  • As there is no constant market for auction selling, the quoted price does not reflect the property’s intrinsic value.
  • A buyer and seller that increases the cost of transactions are more difficult to find.
  • Real estate markets, since they are likely to be segmented, are inefficient.
  • The cost of knowledge collection is higher.
  • The value of the property is more impacted than other equities by increases in interest rates.
  • The yields on default-free assets decide the returns on real estate assets.
  • Less liquid than financial instruments is real estate.

Unsystematic Risk:

A portion of the overall risk that is special or unusual to a business or sector above and above that which normally affects the stock market can be considered an unsystematic risk. The elements of unsystematic risk are management capacity, customer preference, labor strikes. However, there are two key components to the unsystematic risk of investment: credit risk and sector risk:

Risk on credit:

Often referred to as company risk, credit risk consists of market risk and financial risk. The risk inherent in the design of the company is market risk. On the other hand, in addition to business risk resulting from the use of financial leverage, financial risk is a risk. The willingness of the company that issues securities to satisfy its commitment to such securities is correlated with credit risk. A return commensurate with its risk is the fundamental promise of any investment. So the evaluated credit risk is the capacity to produce returns that are compatible with the expected risk. Business risk and financial risk, however, are addressed below:

Business risk:

The capital loss or profits associated with certain businesses’ failure to retain their competitive position and sustain their earnings growth is often referred to as business risk. This risk is present in common stocks and, to some degree, preferred stocks and bonds. The danger is either transient or permanent as a result. The market risk is not only linked to the weaker companies that experienced a complete loss but also occurred when a deficit earnings or a sharp decline in earnings incurred in the case of some better companies that resulted in major investor losses.

In other words, business risk is described as the shift in which the company will not be able to compete efficiently with the assets it buys. For example, a corporation may acquire a machine that may not work properly, which may not produce salable goods or that may face other loss-causing operational or business difficulties. Any organizational issues are known as company risk.

It is possible to separate business risk into two categories: external and internal. Internal business risk is primarily related to the effectiveness with which an organization performs its activities within the larger operating environment put on it. External business risk, on the other hand, is the result of operational conditions imposed on businesses by circumstances beyond their control. Each organization faces its own set of external threats, depending on the particular factors that it must contend with within the operating environment.

Financial risk:

Financial risk is related to the way a business funds its investment activities. It can be characterized as a change in the reality that investment would not produce sufficient cash flows to cover interest payments on money borrowed to fund the investment or principal debt payments or to provide the business with income. By looking at a firm’s capital structure, we typically calculate financial risk. In the capital system, the existence of borrowed money generates fixed payments in the form of interest that must be maintained by the company. Financial risk is a risk that can be prevented to the degree that management has the right to choose whether or not to borrow funds. There is no financial danger to a company with no debt funding.

Sector Risk:

Sector or industry risk refers to the possibility of doing better or worse than expected as a consequence of investing in one rather than another field of the economy. Sector investing implicitly recognizes that the effect of individual investment decisions is less important than investing in the right sector at the right time, certainly for large portfolios. Sector rotation is a form of portfolio management that transfers resources to sectors that are anticipated to be more prospective and overweighted in a portfolio relative to other underweighted sectors.

If the number of shares in the portfolio increases, the non-systematic or residual risk of individual stocks is diversified, leaving only the risk associated with the system or the market. That’s why Risk and Return for investment in Agribusiness are important Terminologies. 

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